The Way of the White Dawn, called the Lambent Charter, is all about destroying darkness and healing damage
The Way of the Black Star (An ancient and archaic name for a solar eclipse), called the Abhorrent Charter, is all about punishing the guilty and protecting the innocent.
The Way of the Infinite Abyss, called the Abyssal Charter, is centered around or with demons.
The Way of Eternity is a special charter especailly for Gatekeepers, which allows them access to Platinum Gatekeys. Non-Gatekeepers in this charter function as protectors and companions for the Gatekeepers.
The Way of the Great Crystal is a charter headed by The World Tree itself. Those within this charter are called to destinies that will protect, preserve and further the existence of life itself. Occasionally, the world tree chooses champions to bear a shard of it's great crystal heart, which was shattered long ago.
This charter is considered unlawful in many regions. It allows one to escape death in return for humanity. It is run by the abusive, corrupt and depraved Clades, the bringer of disaster.
The most ancient and exclusive of all charters. It is run by Moira, who decides the ultimate fate of all. The members of this charter are chosen as they die and are tasked with putting down the undead, severing the soul from the body, and protecting the dead as they attempt to pass on.
A list of special charters that allow Mancers to join other charters, though, it does not require them to.
Fireheart: A charter with a patron dragon that turns you into a Dragonborn.